This study, carried out by Artelys on behalf of EDF, aims to analyse the needs for hydrogen production, storage and inter-regional transport infrastructures in France by 2050.

The analyse was carried out using a regional-scale model of the French energy system using Artelys Crystal Super Grid software, which combines economic optimisation of investments with hourly simulation of the electricity-hydrogen system. Four scenarios incorporating various assumptions about hydrogen demand volumes, the electricity mix, and the impact of hydrogen volumes transiting through France were modelled. The study shows that the development of hydrogen storage offers economic benefits by allowing a flexible operation of electrolysers. The scenarios assuming hydrogen transit from Spain to Germany (or even Belgium, depending on the assumptions) show a hydrogen system structure based around a hydrogen transit backbone  (resulting from exogenous transit constraints) developing along the South-East/North-East axis, with significant geological storage capacities developing in the PACA and Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes regions. However, only the scenarios assuming the highest demand for hydrogen show significant development of an inter-regional hydrogen network beyond this backbone.



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