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— Evolutions of the French electricity mix between 2020 and 2060, complementary analyses

This document is the complementary report of the study "Evolutions of the French electricity mix between 2020 and 2060". It provides additional analyses on three major issues related to the development of a significant share of renewable in the French electricity mix. These new elements bring new light to the summary published in December 2018, which presented the first conclusions of the study on the role of the renewables and nuclear in the long term, the evolution of market prices and costs for the system, and the potential for decarbonation and export.

Client : Ademe

Date : April 2019

— Optimal flexibility portfolio for a high-RES 2050 scenario

To meet the Paris Agreement objectives, renewable and carbon-neutral power generation will play a major role. This study assesses the cost-optimal portfolio of flexibility solutions to allow the feasibility of a 100% decarbonized power system in 2050, considering the additional electricity demand from direct and indirect electrification. Given the constraint of maintaining the supply-demand equilibrium at different time scales, the results highlight and quantify the complementarity between flexible power production, cross-border flows, short-term storage (stationary batteries, electric vehicles, residential thermal storage, etc.) and medium / long term storage (hydraulic storage, storage in the form of synthesis gas). A specific focus was set on the potential synergies between gas and electricity, notably through the hybridization of residential heat supply. Gas-fired back-up heaters for heat pumps are found to be profitable as they limit the electricity consumption in the event of load peaks and very high electricity prices.

Client : European Commission

Date : December 2018

— Wholesale market prices, revenues and risks for producers with high shares of variable RES in the power system

In power systems with a high RES penetration rate, a significant share of electricity generation is weather-dependent. This uncertainty of RES generation translates into an increased risk of price volatility that may negatively impact all players: conventional and renewable power producers, storage operators, consumers, etc.
This study analyses the evolution of price patterns in a carbon-free electricity system. It further quantifies the profitability risks due to weather variations, as well as unforeseen changes in the structure of the power supply fleet, and suggests adequate hedging strategies. The analysis shows that wholesale market prices are increasingly often set by flexible consumers (such as electrolysers). In terms of revenue risks, solar power is particularly vulnerable to a cannibalisation effect, as non-dispatchable PV power generation is concentrated in midday hours and thus causes an overproportionate revenue reduction. As the generation profile of wind turbines is more evenly distributed in time, and as storage is essentially sensitive to arbitrage opportunities, the cannibalisation effect is less pronounced for these technologies. Flexible consumers, such as electrolysers, take advantage of reduced prices and thus represent a hedging option for power producers.

Client : European Commission

Date : December 2018

— Decentralised heat pumps: system benefits under different technical configurations

Space heating currently represents 70% of European households and commercial buildings’ energy consumption. In a context of an increasing penetration of renewable energy sources in the European power mix, using electricity to generate heat could play an important role in the decarbonisation of these sectors. This study reveals that heat pumps represent an efficient way to decrease the CO2 emissions of the European heating sector. However, in the REF16-2030 scenario, the profitability of heat pumps from a system point of view is more than uncertain. Indeed, earnings from the energy consumption reduction are not sufficient to offset the significant investment costs related to the installation of heat pumps and the need for additional peak power generation to meet the increased load peaks. The dedicated models created with METIS emphasize the benefits of the flexibility offered by heat pumps with thermal storage, which allows lower power generation costs, and higher integration of renewable energy sources. Ultimately, equipping heat pumps with gas back-up heaters appears to be a promising compromise to curb the potential increase in electricity demand peaks during the coldest days. Consequently, fewer investments in additional peak power units are required, but at the expense of a slight decrease in the heat pumps’ CO2 emission reduction potential.

Client : European Commission

Date : December 2018

— Evolutions of the French electricity mix between 2020 and 2060

This study presents seven contrasted evolutions of the French electricity mix, interconnected with neighbouring electricity systems. The electricity mixes are obtained by carrying out an economic optimisation of the trajectory of investments with Artelys Crystal Super Grid. This tool jointly optimises the evolution of the installed capacities between 2020 and 2060, and the detailed operational management of the European power system (hourly time-steps for seven climatic years). Using this approach allows us to carefully assess the cost associated with the variability of solar and wind power.

Client : Ademe

Date : December 2018

— The role and potential of power-to-X in 2050

In order to facilitate the decarbonization of transport, buildings and industry, the production of synthetic gases and hydrocarbons from low-carbon electricity is one option to be considered. This study assesses the economic relevance and competitiveness of power-to-gas and power-to-liquids technologies compared to other alternatives, such as biomethane, biofuel or H2-based fuels produced by steam-methane-reforming equipped with CCS. The analysis reveals that the competitiveness of these (capital intensive) power-to-X technologies mainly depends on electricity price profiles: low electricity prices during large periods (at least 3,000 hours per year) represent a prerequisite to enable the development of relevant business models.

Client : European Commission

Date : October 2018

— Cost-efficient district heating development

District heating networks represent a major lever for the reduction of energy demand and related GHG emissions, as they facilitate the integration of renewable energy sources, highly efficient cogeneration plants and recovery of waste heat. In 2012, they contributed to around 9% of the European heat demand.
In order to get a better grasp of the role of district heating networks in the future EU energy mix and their potential interaction with the power and gas systems, the METIS tool was expanded by a dedicated district heating module. This module allows to dimension and simulate district heating networks, relying on an hourly temporal granularity. In the case of the METIS Study S9, representative archetypes of district heating networks are conceived based on the outcome of a comprehensive literature review gathering existing and upcoming district heating projects. For a given 2030 scenario, the number of heat networks per archetype is determined for each EU Member State, allowing to quantify the impact of EU energy policies in terms of energy consumption, GHG emissions and production costs. Ultimately, the new functionalities are demonstrated via a sensitivity assessment, analysing the impact of an increased share of heat pumps in the 2030 district heating network mix.

Client : European Commission

Date : October 2018

— PEPS4: Cost-benefit analysis of electricity storage and power-to-gas at the 2035 horizon in France

In this study carried out in partnership with CEA-Liten and ENEA Consulting, Artelys has analysed the costs and benefits of investing in storage and power-to-gas assets, based on 11 business cases. Different settings have been designed for both power-to-gas (power-to-hydrogen for industrial direct use, for mobility, injection in the gas network, etc.) and electricity storage (centralized storage, storage for UPS, storage for self-consumption, management of electric vehicles load, storage in non-interconnected areas or in high growth areas, etc.). Different services (supply-demand equilibrium, provision of ancillary services, security of supply) have been assessed and analysed. The value of the potential new investments has been estimated in 4 scenarios of the evolution of the French power mix in 2035 based on RTE’s 2017 Bilan Prévisionnel, and have been compared to the projected costs for the different technologies. Finally, for profitable business cases, we have estimated the corresponding market depth.

Clients : Ademe, ATEE

Partenaires : CEA-Liten, ENEA Consulting

Date : July 2018

— Effect of electromobility on the power system and the integration of RES

In the coming years, the number of electric vehicles will substantially increase, to more than 35 million vehicles in 2030, according to projections of the European Commission. The METIS Study S13 has for objective to provide a better understanding of the implications of an increasing number of electric vehicles on the EU power system. Different electric vehicle charging strategies are evaluated in terms of power system impacts, RES integration and CO2 emissions. The assessment was realised by our METIS partner RWTH Aachen University. They successfully made use of the METIS tool. Artelys accompanied the preparation of the study and extended METIS’ functionalities in order to adequately simulate the potential interactions between large fleets of electric vehicles and the power system.

Client : European Commission

Date : June 2018

— Effect of high shares of renewables on power systems at the 2030 horizon

This study evaluates the impact of different levels of renewable electricity penetration on the EU power system at the 2030 horizon and assesses the associated impacts in terms of flexibility needs. The analysis is carried out with the power system module of the METIS model, in combination with an assessment of the residual load in selected EU countries. The study reveals that variable power generation from solar and wind drives price volatility at the wholesale market level. Rising RES generation can lead to production surpluses during a number of hours per year, but curtailment can be kept to relatively low levels thanks to the increased utilisation of interconnectors and storage capacities. The study quantifies flexibility needs at different time scales and identifies the main drivers. It is important to note that flexibility needs depend on national peculiarities and thus require tailor-made portfolios of flexibility solutions.

Client : European Commission

Date : April 2018

— Renewable Energy Sources Support Schemes in Switzerland

The Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) has commissioned this study to Artelys in order to compare the efficiency of support scheme designs to reach Switzerland RES deployment targets and mitigate the risk for investors. In order to quantify the revenues and risks of a RES producer, Artelys has simulated the dispatch of the European power system for two contrasted long-term scenarios over 50 climatic years with Artelys Crystal Super Grid. After having evaluated the level of profitability (or lack thereof) for each technology taking into account potential cannibalisation effects, we have compared the efficiency of various support schemes (feed-in tariff, feed-in premium, cap and floor premium, green certificate) and quantified their impacts on risks (from an investor point of view). The report shows that the main uncertainty on RES developers' revenues originates from the uncertain evolution of the European power sector rather than from the variability of climatic conditions. Finally, as Switzerland has only a very moderate impact on European power prices, the cannibalisation risks have been shown to be negligible at a national level.

Client : Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE)

Date : March 2018

— The 'Energiewende' and the 'transition énergétique' by 2030

This study, carried out for Agora Energiewende and IDDRI, assesses the impacts of the evolution of the French nuclear and German coal power capacities in a context of development of renewable electricity generation technologies at the 2030 horizon. The electricity generation capacities under study are based on reference scenarios for France and Germany with variations on nuclear and coal as well as on the price of CO2. Artelys Crystal Super Grid allowed for a detailed analysis of the impacts on electricity market prices, producers’ revenues, and financial flows on both sides of the Rhine.
Results show that the financial viability of the investments required to prolong the nuclear reactors lifetime so as to maintain the total capacity above 50 GW is rather uncertain and will rely on France's capability to develop its interconnections as well as on the price of CO2. In Germany, the coal phase-out has to accelerate if Germany is to meet its climate goals. It could be compensated for by a revision of the renewable energy target to 60% of the electricity demand, allowing Germany to maintain an import/export balance close to equilibrium. Finally, this study illustrates the impact of national energy strategies beyond national borders and highlights the necessity to assess their compatibility as to establish the European Energy Union.

Clients : Agora Energiewende, IDDRI

Date : March 2018

— Cleaner, Smarter, Cheaper

The report, commissioned by the European Climate Foundation, pursues two major objectives. It evaluates the maximum contribution of renewable energy sources to Europe’s 2030 power mix, taking into account the latest decline in renewable investment costs. Secondly, it determines the extent to which different policy levers may enhance renewables uptake in a cost-efficient manner. The capacity optimisation carried out with Artelys Crystal Super Grid reveals that a joint strategy of demand response and decommissioning of baseload capacities may trigger additional investments in renewables without increasing overall system costs. It’s in particular the automated demand control of new power consumers (such as electric vehicles or heat pumps) that allows for an efficient integration of solar PV power production and contributes to security of supply (by lowering peak demand and delivering system services).

Client : European Climate Foundation

Date : November 2017

— A 100% renewable electricity mix: Assessing the economic viability of gas and heat system decarbonisation

The goal of this study is to assess how the gas and heat systems can be decarbonised in systems with high shares of renewable electricity generation.
The study relies on the optimisation of the electricity mix (generation, storage, network) and of its ability to produce and inject synthetic natural gas (via electrolysis and subsequent methanation) and heat (via heat pumps and electric heaters) in gas and district heating networks. The investments and their management to ensure the power demand-supply equilibrium is met at all times are jointly optimised with an hourly time resolution over the whole year, using a spatial resolution where France is split in 21 regions. The study relies on the Artelys Crytal Super Grid modelling platform, which has enabled us to represent the power system and its interaction with gas and heat vectors with an unprecedented level of detail thanks to its advanced features such as multi-energy modelling, investment planning, and ability to use high-performance computing infrastructure.
The study shows that at the 2050 horizon in the context of a fully decarbonised power sector, the decarbonisation of the gas and heat sectors mainly depends on the CO2 price. For CO2 prices above 100 €/tonne, heat and hydrogen production become economically viable, and for CO2 prices above 300 €/tonne the production of synthetic natural gas from renewable electricity to replace fossil gas is found to be profitable.

Client : ADEME

Date : September 2017

— Design of flexibility portfolios to facilitate the integration of renewables

The Mainstreaming RES study has been commissioned by the European Commission to assist Member States by providing them with a framework to evaluate their future flexibility needs, to identify the locally available flexibility solutions, and to compose a balanced portfolio of flexibility solutions that results in a cost-efficient integration of renewables. The report contains an application of the framework at the European level where we have optimised the capacities of the flexibility solutions for each Member State using the METIS and Artelys Crystal Super Grid models. In particular, the report highlights the role of technologies such as demand-response, storage and interconnectors in the provision of flexibility and shows that annual benefits of up to 2.8 B€ can be generated at the EU level by investing in a balanced portfolio of flexibility solutions instead of solely relying on thermal capacities.

Client : European Commission

Date : July 2017

— Methodological guide for energy and urban development strategies joint design

The ISEUT project resulted in a methodological toolbox for the joint elaboration of urban development planning documents and of strategic energy plans (SEAP). The methodology, centered on the urbanistic notion of urban shape, falls in three steps. The first step consists in urban shape energy profiling, for which the accounting for block compacity has been experimented. During the second step, joint strategy is designed at building and block scale – via an energy efficiency action selection tool – as well as at the whole city scale – via a network opportunity evaluation tool. The final step is dedicated to monitoring and follow up based on a mixt approach between measurements and modeling. The methodology was experimented on the area of Lorient, Brittany, using the Artelys Crystal City software platform.

Client : ADEME – APR MODEVALURBA 2015-2017

Partenaires : Audélor, HESPUL, E.A.U

Date : February 2017

— Assessing Market Design Options in 2030

This study has been commissioned by the European Commission to support the impact assessment of the policy measures considered in the “EU Clean Energy for all Europeans” package. Artelys experts have used the market models of METIS to perform an analysis of measures such as the generalisation of the coupling of intraday markets, the regional dimensioning of balancing reserves, the removal of priority dispatch, etc. The explicit representation of the European short-term markets (day-ahead, intraday, balancing) has also allowed Artelys consultants to illustrate how market participants can refine their positions during the intraday timeframe for different market design options, and how the introduction of policy measures gradually increases the efficiencies of the short-term markets.

Client : European Commission

Date : November 2016

— Electric vehicles in the service of the power system by 2050?

The general aim of this study is to assess the benefits of using vehicle batteries as storage for the power system, especially in the context of a high share of RES. For this purpose, the advanced models and data from the ADEME study of a 100% RES power mix were used, and the assumptions associated with the transport sector were refined by Renault. The power generation and storage capacities in French regions and the power supply-demand balance were simultaneously optimized over one year at an hourly time step, taking into account demand-side management and storage dynamics, and in particular the one of electric vehicles. The goal of this approach was thus to assess the impacts and benefits of this service on a 100% RES power system in France.

Client : SystemX

Partenaire : Renault

Date : November 2016

— Weather-driven revenue uncertainty for power producers and ways to mitigate it

This study provides an analysis of risks on revenues for peak flexibility assets and ways to mitigate them in a 2030-European scenario with a 27% share of renewable energy generation. Indeed, since variable renewable energy generation is driven by weather conditions, further flexibility is required to provide firm capacity during scarcity periods. Ensuring that flexibility assets can get sound revenues from the market is therefore key to guaranteeing an appropriate level of electricity supply. The study shows that peak flexibility assets experience high uncertainties on their annual revenues and that, whichever the risk mitigation mechanism chosen, cooperation is key to avoid massive overinvestments.

Client : European Commission

Date : November 2016

— Thermal storage and power-to-heat in the Energy Transition

The PEPS3 study, carried out in 2016 and commissioned by the ATEE, in collaboration with ADEME (French environment & energy management agency) and 10 industrial actors of the energy sector, aimed at evaluating the potential of heat storage and power-to-heat. The study, conducted by Artelys, Enea Consulting and the BRGM, deals with the most relevant case studies (storage and P2H in district heating, storage for fatal heat recovery, domestic hot water, storage for CHP, etc.), while taking into account storage and power-to-heat technologies most suited to each context. The interest of these technologies is evaluated in a global welfare analysis and then in a financial analysis taking into account the existing economic context (taxes, support mechanism) and the methods of valorisation adapted to each case study. The analysis is based on the latest technological innovations of the Artelys Crystal Super Grid software, in particular in terms of multi-energy mix optimization (heat, electricity).

Clients : Ademe, ATEE

Partenaires : ENEA Consulting, BRGM

Date : November 2016

— Integration of electricity balancing markets and regional procurement of balancing reserves

This cost-benefit study has been commissioned by the European Commission to support their work on Guideline on Electricity Balancing (GLEB) and on the Market Design Initiative (MDI). The study examines several models of cross-zonal exchange of balancing energy (local provision of balancing energy, EU-wide imbalance netting, EU-level competition between Balancing Service Providers) and of balancing reserves dimensioning (national, regional and EU-wide). The first part of the study (GLEB) assesses the proportion of activations that can be avoided thanks to imbalance netting, if performed at an EU-level, subject to the availability of interconnection capacity, and how different models of balancing energy activation result in a more efficient use of the portfolio of reserves. The second part of the study (MDI) evaluates how regional or EU-wide collaboration can reduce the needs for reserves, and examines the trade-off between a local provision of reserves and the reservation of interconnection capacity, which is necessary to guarantee that TSOs can activate balancing resources abroad. Artelys is using the METIS software to assess the benefits of (i) sharing energy balancing reserves, (ii) dimensioning energy reserves at the regional level instead of the national level, and (iii) procuring balancing reserves at the regional level.

Client : European Commission

Partenaires : COWI, Frontier Economics

Date : October 2016

— The role and need of flexibility in 2030: focus on energy storage

This study aims to define the role - and quantify the need - of flexibility in the power system of 2030, characterized by a large share of wind and solar power. Indeed, the variable nature of renewable energy generation driven by weather conditions induces high fluctuation which have to be complemented by some flexibility mean so that the power supply-demand equilibrium can be reached at each time of the year. In this context, interconnectors, demand response, energy storage and flexible power plants can play an important role in increasing the system flexibility, therefore reducing generation costs. In this report, after a precise definition of the roles of flexibility, its value will be assessed in several countries, with the example of energy storage and flexible generation.

Client : European Commission

Date : August 2016

— A Perspective on Infrastructure and Energy Security In the Transition

Commissioned by the European Climate Foundation (ECF), this study looks at which gas infrastructure investments are lowest risk and regret to ensure resilience throughout the transition, and whether an integrated view on infrastructure (gas, power, buildings) help tackle security of supply challenges at a lower cost. For this purpose, Artelys has been chosen by the ECF to assess the impact of the development of interconnections, flexibility options, and synergies between the electricity, gas, and heat sectors on the electricity and gas security of supply. The models were implemented in Artelys Crystal Super Grid and a high performance computing infrastructure has been used to perform the analysis. The study shows that the coordinated management of power and gas systems and the anticipation of energy efficiency developments to come reduce greatly the investment needs in gas infrastructure to ensure security of supply.

Client : European Climate Foundation

Partenaires : CLIMACT, Element Energy

Date : July 2016

— Assessing TYNDP 2014 PCI list in power

The present study assesses the impact of a list of interconnectors (from the ENTSO-E's TYNDP 2014 project list). For this purpose, several criteria – the same as the one used by ENTSO-E to perform cost benefit analysis of PCI projects - related to economic, environmental and security of supply topics -have been measured. The benefits brought by the PCIs are assessed by comparing the annual power optimal dispatch at hourly time step (on ten years of weather scenarios), with the current power transmission network on the one hand, and after adding the considered PCI on the other hand. The analysis has been performed on two 2030 contexts, with different RES shares, based on two ENTSO-E visions in terms of demand and power generation capacities.

Client : European Commission

Date : May 2016

— Impact of PCIs on gas security of supply in Europe

The objective of this study is to assess the impact of Projects of Common Interest on gas security of supply in 2030 in Europe. An incremental approach is used to generate models and run simulations on the European gas system with different gas infrastructure assumptions in scenarios based on ENTSOG TYNDP 2015 Grey scenario. The impact of projects on gas security of supply is assessed by analyzing their influence on two indicators: disrupted demand, which measures loss of load in standard and cold temperature cases, and supply source dependence, which measures the share of demand that cannot be served when a specific source of supply is unavailable, for instance Russian imports.

Client : European Commission

Date : April 2016

— Generation and System Adequacy Analysis

The primary goal that is sought when designing a power system is to ensure it is able to meet the demand in all but very exceptional situations. The growing share of variable power generation requires new techniques to assess system adequacy, and also questions the geographical scale that should be considered when making this assessment. This study analyses the new numerical techniques that have been developed, in particular by TSOs, to precisely simulate the operations of the power system for a number of weather scenarios. This report also exhibits the benefits of a regional or European system adequacy assessment approach, which would result, in comparison with a national one, in a lower level of investment required to meet security of supply criteria.

Client : European Commission

Date : January 2016

— A 100% renewable electricity mix? Analyses and optimisations

Artelys has computed the optimal energy mix (electricity generation, transport, storage, demand response, power to gas and power to heat…) of France by 2050, for different objectives on the share of renewable energy (40%, 80%, 95% and 100%), and using technology price scenarios. This study implies modelling more than 20 interconnected electricity zones in France plus an aggregated model of the rest of Europe. The optimized management of power plants, storage and demand response is simulated on an hourly basis. RES time series include geographical correlations with temperature which in turn affects energy demand. The cost-benefit study addresses all sorts of emerging technologies (marine energy, emerging storage technologies, demand response, new generation of wind energy with higher load rate, concentrating solar power plant …).

Client : Ademe

Partenaires : ARMINES-PERSEE, ENERGIES DEMAIN

Date : October 2015

— France-Germany Study - Energy transition and capacity mechanisms

Commissioned by UFE and BDEW, two French and German power sector associations, this study aims at evaluating the influence of the introduction of a capacity remuneration mechanism on the security of supply in France and Germany. The study focuses on the impact of climatic conditions on producers' revenues and assesses the resulting risks for investors. The impact of risk on the structure of the energy mix was also analyzed through this study. The analysis, carried out by Artelys, is based on a model of the Franco-German electricity system to generate market prices under different market conditions (presence or absence of capacity markets in France and/or Germany, presence or absence of a price-cap in the ""energy-only"" market) for different weather scenarios. This modelling allows to take into account the feedback of the producers’ revenues on the level of investment. The benefits of a coordinated (Franco-German) approach to security of supply have also been identified and quantified.

Clients : UFE, BDEW

Date : September 2015

— Analysis of transmission costs disparities in the French electricity network

The French regulator of electricity (Commission de Régulation de l'Energie, CRE) wished to investigate the interest and feasibility of introducing local injection tariffs for electricity. Artelys performed computations based on historical consumptions and productions on 21 regions of France and on an optimal power flow model, and assessed the disparities of regional injection costs (in €/MWh) on an adapted transportation network. This analysis demonstrated the existence of non-negligible electricity transportation cost disparities between regions directly due to demand and generation location. A sensitivity analysis on additional generated scenarios (based on statistical methods and generation optimization) confirmed stability of computed costs disparities on several different climatic years.

Client : CRE

Date : March 2015

— Design of a decision support tool for sustainable, reliable and cost-effective energy strategies in cities and industrial complexes

The overall objective of CitInES was to design and demonstrate a multi-scale multi-energy decision-support tool to optimize the energy efficiency of cities or large industrial complexes by enabling them to define sustainable, reliable and cost-effective long-term energy strategies. Demonstrations have taken place in two cities in Italy, Cesena and Bologna, and in one oil refinery in Turkey, Tupras. Innovative energy system modelling and optimization algorithms have been designed to allow end-users to optimize their energy strategy through detailed simulations of local energy production, storage, transport, distribution and consumption, including demand side management and coordination functionalities enabled by smart grid technologies. All energy vectors (electricity, gas, heat...), end-uses (heating, air conditioning, lighting, transportation, ...) and sectors (residential, industrial, tertiary, urban infrastructure) are considered to draw a holistic map of the urban and industrial energy systems.

Client : Commission européenne - FP7 2011-2014

Partenaires : Municipality of Cesena, Municipality of Bologna, Tupras, Ervet, Schneider, Inesc Porto, Austrian Institute of Technology, Armines, INRIA

Date : June 2014

— Role and Potential of Energy Storage in France in 2030

Funded by the French industry ministry, ADEME (French environment & energy management agency) and ATEE, the PEPS study aims at comparing, in a detailed and transparent way, the costs, benefits, and opportunities related to energy storage technologies for France. For this purpose, different energy contexts have been studied (national level, rural zones with network constraints, islands, thermal storage with district heating or CHP, etc.). In each of these contexts, Artelys’ contribution consisted in using Artelys Crystal Super Grid to model the supply-demand equilibrium on an hourly basis on a whole year to assess the value of services provided by the different storage technologies (arbitrage, capacity, ancillary services, etc.) depending on their technical characteristics (efficiency, storage duration, capacity to provide ancillary services, etc.). Storage solutions were also compared to other flexibility solutions (demand side management, flexible generation, network reinforcement, etc.). Strategic recommendations for the development of technologies have been formulated. The results were presented to the French Ministry of Industry.

Clients : Ademe, ATEE, DGCIS

Partenaires : ENEA Consulting, G2ELab

Date : October 2013

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