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A 100% renewable electricity mix: Assessing the economic viability of gas and heat system decarbonisation


The goal of this study is to assess how the gas and heat systems can be decarbonised in systems with high shares of renewable electricity generation.

The study relies on the optimisation of the electricity mix (generation, storage, network) and of its ability to produce and inject synthetic natural gas (via electrolysis and subsequent methanation) and heat (via heat pumps and electric heaters) in gas and district heating networks. The investments and their management to ensure the power demand-supply equilibrium is met at all times are jointly optimised with an hourly time resolution over the whole year, using a spatial resolution where France is split in 21 regions. The study relies on the Artelys Crytal Super Grid modelling platform, which has enabled us to represent the power system and its interaction with gas and heat vectors with an unprecedented level of detail thanks to its advanced features such as multi-energy modelling, investment planning, and ability to use high-performance computing infrastructure.

The study shows that at the 2050 horizon in the context of a fully decarbonised power sector, the decarbonisation of the gas and heat sectors mainly depends on the CO2 price. For CO2 prices above 100 €/tonne, heat and hydrogen production become economically viable, and for CO2 prices above 300 €/tonne the production of synthetic natural gas from renewable electricity to replace fossil gas is found to be profitable.

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  • Client: ADEME
  • Date: September 2017

Design of flexibility portfolios to facilitate the integration of renewables


The Mainstreaming RES study has been commissioned by the European Commission to assist Member States by providing them with a framework to evaluate their future flexibility needs, to identify the locally available flexibility solutions, and to compose a balanced portfolio of flexibility solutions that results in a cost-efficient integration of renewables. The report contains an application of the framework at the European level where we have optimised the capacities of the flexibility solutions for each Member State using the METIS and Artelys Crystal Super Grid models. In particular, the report highlights the role of technologies such as demand-response, storage and interconnectors in the provision of flexibility and shows that annual benefits of up to 2.8 B€ can be generated at the EU level by investing in a balanced portfolio of flexibility solutions instead of solely relying on thermal capacities.

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  • Client: European Commission
  • Date: July 2017

Methodological guide for energy and urban development strategies joint design


The ISEUT project resulted in a methodological toolbox for the joint elaboration of urban development planning documents and of strategic energy plans (SEAP). The methodology, centered on the urbanistic notion of urban shape, falls in three steps. The first step consists in urban shape energy profiling, for which the accounting for block compacity has been experimented. During the second step, joint strategy is designed at building and block scale – via an energy efficiency action selection tool – as well as at the whole city scale – via a network opportunity evaluation tool. The final step is dedicated to monitoring and follow up based on a mixt approach between measurements and modeling. The methodology was experimented on the area of Lorient, Brittany, using the Artelys Crystal City software platform.

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  • Client: ADEME – APR MODEVALURBA 2015-2017
  • Date: February 2017
Collaborators: Audélor, HESPUL, E.A.U

Electric vehicles in the service of the power system by 2050?


The general aim of this study is to assess the benefits of using vehicle batteries as storage for the power system, especially in the context of a high share of RES. For this purpose, the advanced models and data from the ADEME study of a 100% RES power mix were used, and the assumptions associated with the transport sector were refined by Renault. The power generation and storage capacities in French regions and the power supply-demand balance were simultaneously optimized over one year at an hourly time step, taking into account demand-side management and storage dynamics, and in particular the one of electric vehicles. The goal of this approach was thus to assess the impacts and benefits of this service on a 100% RES power system in France.

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  • Client: SystemX
  • Date: November 2016
Collaborator: Renault

Assessing Market Design Options in 2030


This study has been commissioned by the European Commission to support the impact assessment of the policy measures considered in the “EU Clean Energy for all Europeans” package. Artelys experts have used the market models of METIS to perform an analysis of measures such as the generalisation of the coupling of intraday markets, the regional dimensioning of balancing reserves, the removal of priority dispatch, etc. The explicit representation of the European short-term markets (day-ahead, intraday, balancing) has also allowed Artelys consultants to illustrate how market participants can refine their positions during the intraday timeframe for different market design options, and how the introduction of policy measures gradually increases the efficiencies of the short-term markets.

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  • Client: European Commission
  • Date: November 2016

Weather-driven revenue uncertainty for power producers and ways to mitigate it


This study provides an analysis of risks on revenues for peak flexibility assets and ways to mitigate them in a 2030-European scenario with a 27% share of renewable energy generation. Indeed, since variable renewable energy generation is driven by weather conditions, further flexibility is required to provide firm capacity during scarcity periods. Ensuring that flexibility assets can get sound revenues from the market is therefore key to guaranteeing an appropriate level of electricity supply. The study shows that peak flexibility assets experience high uncertainties on their annual revenues and that, whichever the risk mitigation mechanism chosen, cooperation is key to avoid massive overinvestments.

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  • Client: European Commission
  • Date: November 2016

Thermal storage and power-to-heat in the Energy Transition


The PEPS3 study, carried out in 2016 and commissioned by the ATEE, in collaboration with ADEME (French environment & energy management agency) and 10 industrial actors of the energy sector, aimed at evaluating the potential of heat storage and power-to-heat. The study, conducted by Artelys, Enea Consulting and the BRGM, deals with the most relevant case studies (storage and P2H in district heating, storage for fatal heat recovery, domestic hot water, storage for CHP, etc.), while taking into account storage and power-to-heat technologies most suited to each context. The interest of these technologies is evaluated in a global welfare analysis and then in a financial analysis taking into account the existing economic context (taxes, support mechanism) and the methods of valorisation adapted to each case study. The analysis is based on the latest technological innovations of the Artelys Crystal Super Grid software, in particular in terms of multi-energy mix optimization (heat, electricity).

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  • Clients: Ademe, ATEE
  • Date: November 2016
Collaborators: ENEA Consulting, BRGM

Integration of electricity balancing markets and regional procurement of balancing reserves


This cost-benefit study has been commissioned by the European Commission to support their work on Guideline on Electricity Balancing (GLEB) and on the Market Design Initiative (MDI). The study examines several models of cross-zonal exchange of balancing energy (local provision of balancing energy, EU-wide imbalance netting, EU-level competition between Balancing Service Providers) and of balancing reserves dimensioning (national, regional and EU-wide). The first part of the study (GLEB) assesses the proportion of activations that can be avoided thanks to imbalance netting, if performed at an EU-level, subject to the availability of interconnection capacity, and how different models of balancing energy activation result in a more efficient use of the portfolio of reserves. The second part of the study (MDI) evaluates how regional or EU-wide collaboration can reduce the needs for reserves, and examines the trade-off between a local provision of reserves and the reservation of interconnection capacity, which is necessary to guarantee that TSOs can activate balancing resources abroad. Artelys is using the METIS software to assess the benefits of (i) sharing energy balancing reserves, (ii) dimensioning energy reserves at the regional level instead of the national level, and (iii) procuring balancing reserves at the regional level.

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  • Client: European Commission
  • Date: October 2016
Collaborators: COWI, Frontier Economics

The role and need of flexibility in 2030: focus on energy storage


This study aims to define the role - and quantify the need - of flexibility in the power system of 2030, characterized by a large share of wind and solar power. Indeed, the variable nature of renewable energy generation driven by weather conditions induces high fluctuation which have to be complemented by some flexibility mean so that the power supply-demand equilibrium can be reached at each time of the year. In this context, interconnectors, demand response, energy storage and flexible power plants can play an important role in increasing the system flexibility, therefore reducing generation costs. In this report, after a precise definition of the roles of flexibility, its value will be assessed in several countries, with the example of energy storage and flexible generation.

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  • Client: European Commission
  • Date: August 2016

A Perspective on Infrastructure and Energy Security In the Transition


Commissioned by the European Climate Foundation (ECF), this study looks at which gas infrastructure investments are lowest risk and regret to ensure resilience throughout the transition, and whether an integrated view on infrastructure (gas, power, buildings) help tackle security of supply challenges at a lower cost. For this purpose, Artelys has been chosen by the ECF to assess the impact of the development of interconnections, flexibility options, and synergies between the electricity, gas, and heat sectors on the electricity and gas security of supply. The models were implemented in Artelys Crystal Super Grid and a high performance computing infrastructure has been used to perform the analysis. The study shows that the coordinated management of power and gas systems and the anticipation of energy efficiency developments to come reduce greatly the investment needs in gas infrastructure to ensure security of supply.

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  • Client: European Climate Foundation
  • Date: July 2016
Collaborators: CLIMACT, Element Energy

Assessing TYNDP 2014 PCI list in power


The present study assesses the impact of a list of interconnectors (from the ENTSO-E's TYNDP 2014 project list). For this purpose, several criteria – the same as the one used by ENTSO-E to perform cost benefit analysis of PCI projects - related to economic, environmental and security of supply topics -have been measured. The benefits brought by the PCIs are assessed by comparing the annual power optimal dispatch at hourly time step (on ten years of weather scenarios), with the current power transmission network on the one hand, and after adding the considered PCI on the other hand. The analysis has been performed on two 2030 contexts, with different RES shares, based on two ENTSO-E visions in terms of demand and power generation capacities.

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  • Client: European Commission
  • Date: May 2016

Impact of PCIs on gas security of supply in Europe


The objective of this study is to assess the impact of Projects of Common Interest on gas security of supply in 2030 in Europe. An incremental approach is used to generate models and run simulations on the European gas system with different gas infrastructure assumptions in scenarios based on ENTSOG TYNDP 2015 Grey scenario. The impact of projects on gas security of supply is assessed by analyzing their influence on two indicators: disrupted demand, which measures loss of load in standard and cold temperature cases, and supply source dependence, which measures the share of demand that cannot be served when a specific source of supply is unavailable, for instance Russian imports.

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  • Client: European Commission
  • Date: April 2016

Generation and System Adequacy Analysis


The primary goal that is sought when designing a power system is to ensure it is able to meet the demand in all but very exceptional situations. The growing share of variable power generation requires new techniques to assess system adequacy, and also questions the geographical scale that should be considered when making this assessment. This study analyses the new numerical techniques that have been developed, in particular by TSOs, to precisely simulate the operations of the power system for a number of weather scenarios. This report also exhibits the benefits of a regional or European system adequacy assessment approach, which would result, in comparison with a national one, in a lower level of investment required to meet security of supply criteria.

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  • Client: European Commission
  • Date: January 2016

A 100% renewable electricity mix? Analyses and optimisations


Artelys has computed the optimal energy mix (electricity generation, transport, storage, demand response, power to gas and power to heat…) of France by 2050, for different objectives on the share of renewable energy (40%, 80%, 95% and 100%), and using technology price scenarios. This study implies modelling more than 20 interconnected electricity zones in France plus an aggregated model of the rest of Europe. The optimized management of power plants, storage and demand response is simulated on an hourly basis. RES time series include geographical correlations with temperature which in turn affects energy demand. The cost-benefit study addresses all sorts of emerging technologies (marine energy, emerging storage technologies, demand response, new generation of wind energy with higher load rate, concentrating solar power plant …).

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  • Client: Ademe
  • Date: October 2015

France-Germany Study - Energy transition and capacity mechanisms


Commissioned by UFE and BDEW, two French and German power sector associations, this study aims at evaluating the influence of the introduction of a capacity remuneration mechanism on the security of supply in France and Germany. The study focuses on the impact of climatic conditions on producers' revenues and assesses the resulting risks for investors. The impact of risk on the structure of the energy mix was also analyzed through this study. The analysis, carried out by Artelys, is based on a model of the Franco-German electricity system to generate market prices under different market conditions (presence or absence of capacity markets in France and/or Germany, presence or absence of a price-cap in the ""energy-only"" market) for different weather scenarios. This modelling allows to take into account the feedback of the producers’ revenues on the level of investment. The benefits of a coordinated (Franco-German) approach to security of supply have also been identified and quantified.

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  • Clients: UFE, BDEW
  • Date: September 2015

Analysis of transmission costs disparities in the French electricity network


The French regulator of electricity (Commission de Régulation de l'Energie, CRE) wished to investigate the interest and feasibility of introducing local injection tariffs for electricity. Artelys performed computations based on historical consumptions and productions on 21 regions of France and on an optimal power flow model, and assessed the disparities of regional injection costs (in €/MWh) on an adapted transportation network. This analysis demonstrated the existence of non-negligible electricity transportation cost disparities between regions directly due to demand and generation location. A sensitivity analysis on additional generated scenarios (based on statistical methods and generation optimization) confirmed stability of computed costs disparities on several different climatic years.

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  • Client: CRE
  • Date: March 2015

Design of a decision support tool for sustainable, reliable and cost-effective energy strategies in cities and industrial complexes


The overall objective of CitInES was to design and demonstrate a multi-scale multi-energy decision-support tool to optimize the energy efficiency of cities or large industrial complexes by enabling them to define sustainable, reliable and cost-effective long-term energy strategies. Demonstrations have taken place in two cities in Italy, Cesena and Bologna, and in one oil refinery in Turkey, Tupras. Innovative energy system modelling and optimization algorithms have been designed to allow end-users to optimize their energy strategy through detailed simulations of local energy production, storage, transport, distribution and consumption, including demand side management and coordination functionalities enabled by smart grid technologies. All energy vectors (electricity, gas, heat...), end-uses (heating, air conditioning, lighting, transportation, ...) and sectors (residential, industrial, tertiary, urban infrastructure) are considered to draw a holistic map of the urban and industrial energy systems.

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  • Client: European Commission - FP7 2011-2014
  • Date: June 2014


Collaborators: Municipality of Cesena, Municipality of Bologna, Tupras, Ervet, Schneider, Inesc Porto, Austrian Institute of Technology, Armines, INRIA

Role and Potential of Energy Storage in France in 2030


Funded by the French industry ministry, ADEME (French environment & energy management agency) and ATEE, the PEPS study aims at comparing, in a detailed and transparent way, the costs, benefits, and opportunities related to energy storage technologies for France. For this purpose, different energy contexts have been studied (national level, rural zones with network constraints, islands, thermal storage with district heating or CHP, etc.). In each of these contexts, Artelys’ contribution consisted in using Artelys Crystal Super Grid to model the supply-demand equilibrium on an hourly basis on a whole year to assess the value of services provided by the different storage technologies (arbitrage, capacity, ancillary services, etc.) depending on their technical characteristics (efficiency, storage duration, capacity to provide ancillary services, etc.). Storage solutions were also compared to other flexibility solutions (demand side management, flexible generation, network reinforcement, etc.). Strategic recommendations for the development of technologies have been formulated. The results were presented to the French Ministry of Industry.

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  • Clients: Ademe, ATEE, DGCIS
  • Date: October 2013
Collaborators: ENEA Consulting, G2ELab